தும்புத் தொழில்
ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரை
In need of translation: an analysis of Sri Lankan Tamil Dalit literature
In Tamil Nadu, Dalit politics and literature became popular in the 1990s after the Ambedkar centenary celebrations. However, in Sri Lanka, Dalit politics became a distinct presence from the 1950s onward. Sri Lankan Tamil society is caste-structured, and the dominant castes are the Tamil Saiva Vellalars, who enjoy a superior status akin to the Brahmins in Tamil Nadu. The Nalavars, Pallars, Parayars, Vannan, and Ambattan, grouped together under the term Panchamar (1) are the "untouchable" communities that work for the Saiva Vellalars (upper-caste Hindus). Starting in the 1950s, certain groups began to put up major opposition against the discriminatory practices of the Tamil Saiva Vellalars, and literature played a very important role in raising awareness about the plight of Dalits among Sri Lankan Tamils. The experiences of untouchables as documented in Sri Lankan Tamil Dalit literature are similar to Dalit experiences in Tamil Nadu.
Social Stratification in Jaffna: A Survey of Recent Research on Caste
Since 1983, war has dominated the perception of Sri Lanka. This has affected scholarship on the country, such that the subjects of an overwhelming number of research proposals and publications have been on the war and the prospects and rescriptions for peace. This survey paper is an attempt to locate the system of caste in transition in the Jaffna Peninsula by reviewing recent literature written after the commencement of the war. While detailed ethnographies of caste in Jaffna may have temporarily come to a halt, caste practices have not and remain a salient part of everyday life among the Tamils in Sri Lanka. As the war ended in 2009, it is therefore important that social scientists on Sri Lanka revisit the topic of caste, that is an integral part of not just Tamil culture or society, but being Tamil itself. As the study of caste is dominated by research in India, a microanalysis of Jaffna and Sri Lanka, particularly the nuances of this system in transition due to war and militancy, could contribute to the macro-study of caste at a sub-continental perspective.
Decriminalizing same sex relations in Asia: socio-cultural factors impeding legal reform
This article considers why former British colonies in Asia have resisted calls to decriminalize same sex relations and as a related matter, what prospects exist for re form. This article argues, inter alia , that recent trends elsewhere–especially in the West –do not predict the decriminalization of same sex relations in South and Southeast Asia and indeed, may make it more difficult to achieve. 9 Nevertheless, at least som e of the factors that have sustained the criminalization of same sex relations in Asia far can be addressed, and even reversed, by governmental and non -governmental measures.
Naturalizing ‘Queerness’: A Study of Shyam Selvadurai’s Funny Boy
If the representation of same-sex sexuality in punitive terms leaves gays in shock, then the legitimizing of Article XVI Section 377 (which bars gay sex) in India made gays all over the world, especially in South Asia speechless and traumatized. In response to this universally misconstrued image of an ‘unnatural’ man, Shyam Selvadurai, a Canadian-Sri Lankan writer creates a narrative which not only offers an ‘innocent peek’ into the biased perspectives of heterosexuals towards queers but the use of a child narrator is a deliberate ploy with which he deconstructs the craving for a so called ‘healthy’ text.’ Thus, this article, by musing on Selvadurai’s most acclaimed text Funny Boy (1994), attempts to examine how and why ‘unhealthy’ texts are constructed. Secondly, it elaborates on the subtle literary strategies used by Selvadurai to debunk pre-conceived notions of a heterosexual literary text. Finally, the article while locating a gay narrative in the social and cultural context of Sri Lanka, presents a gendered analysis of homosexuality in Sri Lanka., Journal Article
Caste Discrimination and Social Justice in Sri Lanka: An Overview
This Working Paper “Caste Discrimination and Social Justice in Sri Lank: An Overview” has been taken out from our report on Caste Based Discrimination (CBD) in South Asia. Drawn form the country report on Sri Lanka, the paper brings out the historical silence on caste discrimination and its local/regional specificities. It examines the patterns of CBD in Sri Lanka in a range of domains that include basic services, education, employment, land, markets, and political participation. The paper also reveals the complex relationship of caste and ethnicity, identifying the interlocking character of discrimination. It concludes that Sri Lankan society by no means is casteless as it is commonly assumed and the caste-blind policies of the state and non- state actors do not adequately deal with the continuing and emerging forms of CBD in various spheres of the society.
Caste and Social Exclusion of IDPs in Jaffna Society
This study provides an empirical case study of caste and social exclusion of war-affected Jaffna society. Initial part of this study developed through secondary and historical information on caste-based exclusion and all other parts present the contemporary caste-based exclusion with special reference to the selected camps of Internally Displaced People / Persons (IDPs) in Jaffna society. One of the key issues examined in this study was overrepresentation of certain ‘low-caste’ status “Panchamar” (five so-called low caste groups) in the IDP population remaining in Welfare centers. Although the war affected all inhabitants of Jaffna irrespective of their caste and class backgrounds, many of the long-term IDPs emerge from the traditionally underprivileged caste groups to the exclusion of people from the numerically large and dominant Vellālar caste. All remaining IDPs in the four welfare centers in Mallakam belonged to the Nalavar and Pallar caste. Access to village Hindu temples controlled by “upper caste” Hindus, access to drinking water from wells owned by “high caste” families and discriminations experienced by the “Panchamars” in the land market are some examples of caste-based exclusion in contemporary Jaffna society. Even though caste is not explicitly recognized in many matters and there is a public denial of the importance of caste by most parties, the educated middle classes in particular, the actual social reality is much more complex and multilayered and demands an understanding that goes beyond the superficial level and official truths whether coming from the state and nonstate actors who are eager to consider every thing to meta-narratives such as terrorism, nationalism and liberation struggle.
Ceylon's Contribution to Tamil Language and Literature
ஈழத்து அறிஞர்களின் தமிழ் மொழி, இலக்கிய பங்களிப்புக்கள்., ஆய்வுக் கட்டுரை
Sri Lankan memory institutions and the culture-conflict dialectic
This project examines the nature of cultural violence in Sri Lanka by focusing on historical and political elements that contribute to civil war in this setting. Particular attention is paid to the impact of cultural violence on memory institutions and the effect this has on memory and identity formation in Sri Lanka. The research takes a liberal humanist perspective with Petersen's emotion-based theory of ethnic conflict providing a framework. The theory looks at the emotions of resentment, hatred and fear as a part of the identity and memory of conflict participants. The emotion-based theory sees the experience of these emotions as instrumental to ethnic conflict. The relationship between conflict and culture is revealed through the research to be reflexive, context-dependent and highly complex. Culture and conflict interact having destructive and constructive effects on memory institutions. This project concludes that there is much work to be done before Sri Lankan information professionals are able to develop strategies to deal with the violence that has damaged their memory institutions, collections and the people's connection with their cultural heritage., Source: https://tewaharoa.victoria.ac.nz/primo-explore/fulldisplay?vid=VUWNUI&search_scope=64VUW_ALL&tab=all&docid=ROSETTA_ResearchArchiveIE979408&lang=en_NZ&context=L&adaptor=Local%20Search%20Engine&query=any,contains,Sri%20Lankan%20Memory%20Institutions%20and%20the%20Culture%20conflict%20Dialectic&sortby=rank&facet=rtype,exclude,newspaper_articles&facet=rtype,exclude,reviews
Bringing Cultural Heritage Information from Developing Regions to the Global Information Space as Linked Open Data: An Exploratory Metadata Aggregation Model for Sri Lankan Heritage and its Extension
Background: Sri Lankan memory institutions are currently not optimised to deliver Cultural Heritage Information (CHI) on the Web. Part of the issue is the lack of metadata aggregation. We propose an approach that would help aggregate Sri Lankan CHI with more contextual information in order to open up this information and make it more accessible. Objectives: To present a metadata model to aggregate Sri Lankan CHI provided by museums in different regions and to discuss some basic issues for future extension of our model to different Southeast Asian countries. Methods: This paper describes a metadata crosswalk approach between museum vocabularies, which was achieved by investigating over 2600 object records across four museums inside and outside Sri Lanka, and by mapping them to the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) and Resource Description Framework (RDF). Results: Based on the results of the mapping described above, we propose a metadata model to aggregate CHI that is specific to Sri Lankan cultural heritage materials. Contributions.:The proposed model is a novel approach to Sri Lankan CHI domain. Based on the outcomes of this study, this paper discusses the possibility of extending the scope of this CHI metadata aggregation to other countries in Southeast Asia through adopting Linked Open Data (LOD). Keywords: Cultural Heritage Information (CHI); Linked Open Data (LOD); Metadata; Museum Information; Resource Description Framework (RDF); Sri Lanka; Thailand; Japan; Manga Metadata Bringing Cultural Heritage Information from Developing Regions to the Global Information Space as Linked Open Data: An Exploratory Metadata Aggregation Model for Sri Lankan Heritage and its Extension (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311698751_Bringing_Cultural_Heritage_Information_from_Developing_Regions_to_the_Global_Information_Space_as_Linked_Open_Data_An_Exploratory_Metadata_Aggregation_Model_for_Sri_Lankan_Heritage_and_its_Extension [accessed Mar 22 2018].
Public Libraries in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka - Challenges
Establishment of public libraries is regarded as one of the e ssential amenities of the local or central government of a nation since they enhance the idea of free and equal access to information and off ers their collections and services to all members of the community. This study revealed the present status of the p ublic libraries in the Jaffna District. Apart from the Jaffna Public Library, which is managed by the Ja ffna Municipal Council and provide services to the whole Jaffna District, presently there are 03 Urban Counci l libraries, 13 Pradeshiya Sabha libraries and 907 Community Center libraries, which cater the needs of the genera l public of the respective areas in the Jaffna District. Conflict situation which prevailed in the region for t he past 30 years severely affected the library services, too. After signing the MOU between the Government of Sri Lanka and LTTE in 2002, many foreign and local Non-governmental organisations and United Nations agencies star ted to reconstruct and develop some of the public libraries of Jaffna District with the foreign funded projec ts. This study identified the major challenges for these public libraries, at present. Those are insufficient funding and i nadequate infrastructure facilities, poor collection of e-resources and use of IT, dearth of professional and personal compe tencies among library staff, poor participation in CPD programs, lack of interest and motivation from authorities , and absence of library cooperation. It is recommended to have advocacy programs for all the stakeholders of these public libraries, adopt modern e- technology services in the library functionalities, organise r egular user education programs for readers with regard to library services, conduct CPD programs and training sessions espe cially for the enhancement of professional and personal competencies among librarians of this region, and esta blish a library consortia to coordinate the activities of the libraries in the Jaffna District. With this type of support , public libraries of this region are expected to survive, and also thrive in continuing to provide valuable service in t he information age.